The Resource Centre

The following resources articles have been oringally published by the online Cochrane Library.

In this section you will find selected gynaecology and obstetrics related articles and studies which we believe may be of interest to health professionals within Women's Health.



(All articles referenced are displayed with permission from Wiley, publishers of the Cochrane library).


Instruments for assisted vaginal delivery

Date: 20.08.2015 | Category: Obstetrics

There is a recognised place for forceps and all types of ventouse in clinical practice. The role of operator training with any choice of instrument must be emphasised. The increasing risks of failed delivery with the chosen instrument from forceps to metal cup to hand-held to soft cup vacuum, and trade-offs between risks of maternal and neonatal trauma identified in this review need to be considered when choosing an instrument.

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Comparing continuous electronic fetal monitoring in labour (cardiotocography, CTG) with intermittent listening (intermittent auscultation, IA)

Date: 19.08.2015 | Category: Obstetrics

Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) during labour is associated with a reduction in neonatal seizures, but no significant differences in cerebral palsy, infant mortality or other standard measures of neonatal well-being. However, continuous cardiotocography was associated with an increase in caesarean sections and instrumental vaginal births. The challenge is how best to convey these results to women to enable them to make an informed choice without compromising the normality of labour

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Follow-up strategies after treatment LLETZ for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) test

Date: 06.01.2015 | Category: Cancer

It is widely accepted that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is associated with development of precancerous changes, namely, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. It is also accepted that women who develop high-grade CIN and subsequently receive treatment with a procedure called large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), which uses a wire loop to remove abnormal cells, are at greater risk for developing further CIN than women who have never had CIN. Therefore, these women need regular follow-up assessment to detect additional abnormalities.

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Hysteroscopy for treating subfertility associated with suspected major uterine cavity abnormalities

Date: 21.02.2015 | Category: Cancer

Human life starts when a fertilised egg has successfully implanted in the inner layer of the cavity of the womb. It is believed that abnormalities originating from this site, such as polyps, fibroids, septa or adhesions, may disturb this important event. The removal of these abnormalities by doing a hysteroscopy using a very small diameter inspecting device might therefore increase the chance of becoming pregnant either spontaneously or after specialised fertility treatment, such as insemination or in vitro fertilisation.

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Hormonal and intrauterine methods for contraception for women aged 25 years and younger

Date: 14.11.2012 | Category: Intra-Uterine Device (IUD)

Women between the ages of 15 and 24 years have high rates of unintended pregnancy; over half of women in this age group want to avoid pregnancy. However, women under age 25 years have been found to have higher typical contraceptive failure rates within the first 12 months of use than older women. High discontinuation rates may also be a problem in this population. Concern that adolescents and young women will not find hormonal or intrauterine contraceptives acceptable or effective might deter healthcare providers from recommending these contraceptive methods.

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Intrauterine devices for contraception in nulliparous women

Date: 06.07.2011 | Category: Intra-Uterine Device (IUD)

The intrauterine device (IUD) is the most widely used reversible contraceptive worldwide. In 2009, the worldwide prevalence of IUDs was 14.2% among married women using contraception aged 15 to 49 years (United Nations 2009). According to the WHO the prevalence of IUD use among developing countries was 15.1%, but the prevalence in developed countries was 9.1% (United Nations 2009). In the United States, the increase in the prevalence of IUDs from 2% in 2000 to 5.5% in 2006-2008 is encouraging (Mosher 2010). However IUD use among nulliparous women remains low worldwide (Prager 2007). Access to this highly effective method of contraception among nulliparous women is often restricted.

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Immediate post-partum insertion of intrauterine devices

Date: 12.05.2010 | Category: Intra-Uterine Device (IUD)

Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after delivery is appealing for several reasons. The woman is known not to be pregnant, her motivation for contraception may be high, and the setting may be convenient for both the woman and her provider. However, the risk of spontaneous expulsion may be unacceptably high.

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Interventions for pain with intrauterine device insertion

Date: 08.07.2009 | Category: Intra-Uterine Device (IUD)

Fear of pain during intrauterine device (IUD) insertion is a barrier to use of this contraceptive method. Interventions for pain during IUD insertion include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), local cervical anesthetics, and cervical ripening agents such as misoprostol.

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